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Computer Notes: Transmission Media and Its Types

Computer Notes Transmission Media and Its Types
Transmission Media and Its Types - Banking Notes

The communication in a network is only possible if the information is coded into a signal and is transferred through a transmission medium. The transmission medium acts as the medium or physical path between the transmitter and the receiver in the data transmission system. 
Characteristics of the Media:
  • It provides good quality communication at long distance.
  • It ensures higher data rate at long communication distance at a lower cost.
  • There are 3 factors which affect the maximum communication distance and maximum data rate of a medium. These factors are interference, communication bandwidth of medium and the transmission impairments.
  • The interference is the distortion on signal in the transmission due to the unwanted signals from the outside sources.
  • The bandwidth of the medium determines the signal frequencies.
  • The transmission impairments include noises, distortion during the signal propagation.

Classification of Transmission Media:
The transmission media is classified into two major categories i.e. Guided Transmission Media and Unguided Transmission Media.
Guided Transmission Media:
  • It constrains and guides the communication signal.
  • The Signals are transmitted through the physical and tangible guide between communicating points.
  • It includes Fiber Optics cable, Twisted Pair Telephone cable, wave guide and coaxial cable.
Types of Guided Transmission Media:
Twisted Pair Cable-
  • The pairs of wires are twisted around to make this type of cable.
  • The wires are twisted together to reduce the crosstalk and noise susceptibility.
  • This type of cable is of 2 types i.e. UTP and STP.
  • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) is covered with the foil shield to reduce interference and cross talk between the pair of wires. It is bulky and difficult to use.
  • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) does not have any extra shield around the pairs of wires. It is cheap and easy to install.  
  • Applications- Telephone line, ISDN etc.
Coaxial Cable-
  • It is a copper cable which is mostly used by the Cable TV companies for distributing TV signals.
  • It is also known as Coax.
  • It carries the signal of higher frequencies. 
  • Applications- Cable TV, Local Area Networking, Long Distance Telephone Transmission etc.
Fiber Optics Cable-
  • This kind of cable uses the light to send the information.
  • It provides high bandwidth for voice, video and applications of data.
  • It is more reliable and secure.
  • It can carry larger information than the other wires.
  • The information loss is very less in this kind of cable.
Unguided Transmission Media:
  • It permits the signal to be transmitted but never guide them.
  • There is no direct physical connection between the two points i.e. satellite links and microwave.
  • The examples of Unguided Transmission Media are radio signals, microwave, Satellite signal and infrared.
Types of Unguided Transmission Media:
Satellite Communication-
  • The artificial satellite is man made.
  • It consists of a radio transmitter and transponder.
  • It provides communication over longer distance than others.
  • It is used in video conferencing, GPS (Global Positioning System) etc.
Microwave Communication:
  • The microwave is a kind of electromagnetic waves.
  • It is used when the physical transmission media cannot be installed under any circumstances (mountains, jungles, rivers etc).
  • The microwave transmission is the line of sight transmission.
Radio Communication:
  • It is used for wireless communication.
  • Applications-  Portable phones, Sending/Receiving Computer data.
Infrared Communication:
  • The infrared technology allows the devices to communicate via short range wireless signals.
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