Indian Polity - Constitutional Framework
As you all know General Awareness is one of the scoring subject for any Govt. Competitive Exams. In Previous Years in SSC CGL / CHSL(10+2) Many Questions were asked infact this Year in SSC CGL. So, from today onwards we will deliver the complete notes part by part so all of you can prepare well and easily score in GA. So, Lets Start from Indian Polity - The Constitutional Framework. After Completing all parts we will release it in PDF's.
Making of the Constitution-
- The Constituent Assembly was made in November 1946 under scheme formulated by "Cabinet Mission Plan".
- Various major and minor committees of Constituent Assembly are there.
- Jawaharlal Nehru was the Chairperson of the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.
- Sardar Patel is the Chairperson of Union Powers Committee. He was also the Chair person of the Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas.
- Dr. B. R Ambedkar was the Chairman of Drafting committee. He was known as the “Father of the Constitution of India”, “Chief Architect of the Constitution of India” and Modern Nehru.
- The Constitution was adopted on 26th November in 1949. It is contained 395 Articles, 8 schedules and a Preamble.
- There were 229 Indian Provinces and 70 Princely States of the Constituent Assembly of India on 31st December, 2017.
Salient Features of the Constitution-
- The Constitution of India is the Lengthiest Written Constitution. It is drawn from the Constitutions of various countries i.e. Canada, Australia, Germany, USSR (Now USSR), France, South Africa, Japan and so on.
- Amendments of the Indian Constitution are made several times. Among these Amendments, 42nd Amendment Act (1976) is known as the Mini Constitution for the important and large number of changes made on it.
- Part III of the Indian Constitution guarantees 6 Fundamental Rights to all the citizens.Right to Equality (Article 14-18), Right to Freedom (Article 19-22), Right against Exploitation (Article 23-24), Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28), Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29-30), Rights to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)
- The Part IV-A of the Indian Constitution specifies the 11 Fundamental Duties i.e. to respect the Constitution, national flag and national anthem, to preserve heritage of Indian culture, to protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of the country and to promote the spirit of common brotherhood among the citizens of India.
- The term “secular” was added to the Preamble of Indian Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act.
- Three Tier Government (Center, State and Local) is seen only in India in the World.
- The Constitution of India mentions three types of emergencies i.e. National Emergency on the ground of war or External aggression or rebellion, state emergency and Financial Emergency.
- There are 442 Articles, 22 parts and 12 schedules in the Constitution of India.
Preamble of India-
- India is mentioned as the Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic and to secure to all its citizens the Justice, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.
Union and Its Territory-
- The Article 3 authorizes the Parliament to form a new state by separation of territory from any state or by uniting two or more states or part of states or by uniting any territory to a part of new state, increase the area of any state, diminish the area of any state, alter the boundary of any state and alter the name of any state.
- There are 29 states and 7 Union Territories in India.
Right to Constitutional Remedies Under Fundamental Rights –
- The Supreme Court under the Article 32 and High Courts (under Article 226) can issue the writs of Mandamus, Habeas Corpus, Prohibition, Certiorari and Quo-warranto.
- Habeas Corpus is a latin word which means “to have the body of”. It is issued by the Court to a person who has detained another person to produce the body of the latter before it.
- Mandamus means “We Command”. It is a command issued by the court to a public official asking him to perform his official duties that he has failed or refused to perform.
- Certiorari means “to be certified” or “to be informed”. It is issued buy a Higher Court to the Lower Court or tribunal to transfer a case pending with the latter.
- Quo Warranto means “by what authority or warrant”. It is issued by the court to inquire into the legality of the claim of a person to a public office.
Second Part: Sources of Constitution and Fundamental Rights