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SSC & Railway Notes: Indus Valley Civilization

SSC & Railway Notes: Indus Valley Civilization

Ancient History - Indus Valley Civilization

Some Important Key points of Indus Valley Civilization:

  • Lothal was a major port of the Indus Valley.
  • Dholavira has yielded evidence of sign-board.
  • Rice cultivation is associated with the Harappan site of Lothal and Rangpur (Gujarat).
  • Kalibangan is a Harappan site located in Rajasthan.
  • Granary was the largest building of Mohenjo-Daro.
  • A bronze dancing girl found in Mohenjo-Daro.
  • Multi pillared Assembly Hall was another remarkable building in Mohenjo-Daro.
  • The Harappan people carried trade with Sumer country.
  • The famous Bull-seal of Indus-Valley was found in Mohenjo-Daro.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation flourished during 2500-1750 B.C.
  • Seep was the 1st domestic animal near to Stone Age people.
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are the following Harappan sites not in India.
  • Harappan language was written from right to left in first and from left to right in second line. This style was called “BOUSTROPHEDON”.
  • Horse found in area of Surkotada.
  • Indus Valley Civilisation was spread over: Sind, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, U.P., Rajasthan and Gujarat.

There are five ages as per history background given below:

  • Pleistocene – Ice Age.
  • Palaeolithic – Old Stone Age.
  • Neolithic – New stone age.
  • Mesolithic – Middle Stone Age.
  • Chalcolithic – Copper Stone Age.

The following were characteristics of the Palaeolithic Age in India:

  1. It was in the age that modern man termed by anthropologists as ‘homo-sapiens’ emerged.
  2. In order to save himself from animals he used to lead his life in groups. 
  3. Tools found in all parts of the Sub-Continent during this period were mostly made by quartzite. The people of this period lived either in rock-shelters or in huts.

The following were characteristics of the Neolithic period:

  1. They buried their dead and created tombs. 
  2. They know the use of fire and had started cooking. 
  3. Man started settling in this period. 
  4. The worshipped sprits of nature as embodied are trees and stones, and appeased them by bloody sacrifices and offerings of food and drink.

Essential statements regarding pre-historic art:

  1. Palaeolithic and Mesolithic people practised painting.
  2.  Pre-historic art appears at several places, but Bhimbetka is the most striking site with 500 painted rock shelters. 
  3. Many birds, animals and Human beings are painted.

Harappan Culture/Indus Valley Civilisation:

Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as Harappan culture due to the most important evidence of the achivments of this civilisation has been excavated from Harappa. In Harappan culture they use different type of metal to made the coin (i.e., Copper, Bronze, Gold, and Silver etc.). They did not know about Iron metal. An archaeological excavation is the main channels of our knowledge about Indus Valley Civilisation. The Indus valley people were acquainted with the art of spinning and weaving. Two important things Wheat and Cotton were contributed to mankind in this civilisation. The following crops (wheat, Barley, Cotton, Peas, Mustard, and Sesames) were grown by Indus Valley Civilisation. ‘Town Planning’ was the main characterised to identify Indus valet civilisation. The famous figure of dancing girl found in the excavation of Harappa made by Bronze. Domestic animal in Harappan was following: Buffalo, Rhinoceros, Elephant, Bull, Sheep, dog, Pig, Horse etc. In Indus valley Civilisation period the domestic number used for weights and measures was 16.

Beliefs and Practise of Indus People:

  •       Worship of Nature.
  •       Phallic and Yonic worship.
  •      Belief in ghosts and spirits.
  •       Belief life after death.

The Harappans extensively used burnt bricks because of the following reason:
  •       Stone was not available.
  •       They provide defence against floods.
  •       They provided security and longevity.

Some places presently situated in India:


Archaeological finding some important things from special Ancient sites:

Ploughed field
Terracotta replica of a plough, Practice of fire Celt.
An inscription comprising ten large sized of the harappan script.
Lower town fort field.
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