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Indian Polity & Constitution Notes for SSC Exams

Indian Polity & Constitution Notes for SSC Exams
Indian Polity & Constitution Notes for SSC Exams

The Constitution of India is termed as the Worlds Lengthiest Constitution and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is popularly known as the Father of Indian Constitution. The Constitution was framed by the Constituent Assembly of India on 16th May 1946.  Under the cabinet mission plan, the Constituent Assembly Consists of 385 Member. Out of which 292 members were elected by the provincial Legislative Assemblies and 93 were nominated by the princely State. 
  • On 9 Dec. 1946 the First meeting of the Constituent Assembly took place. Sachidanand Sinha was the interim president at that time. 
  • On 11 Dec 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president. The Constituent Assembly had 13 Committees to frame the Constitution.
  • Total 11 Sessions were covered in 165 Days.
  • The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to complete the Constitution for Independent India.
  • The Constitution of India was finally passed and accepted on 26 Nov. 1949. The 11th Session i.e. the Last Session of the Constituent Assembly was held on 24th January 1950. But the Constitution of India came into force on 26th Jan. 1950.
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad was unanimously elected as the president and all 284 Members out of 385 of the Assembly signed the official copied of Indian Constitution to come into force from 26thJan. 1950.
  • Originally it has 22 Parts, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. But at Present It has 25 Parts, 448 Articles and 12 Schedules. 
  • M.N. Roy (A Political Philosopher) gave the idea to have its own Constitution.
  • The Constituent Assembly was adopted our National Flag on 22nd July 1947
  • It was designed by Pingali Venkaiah from Andhra Pradesh.
  • But Jammu & Kashmir is the Only State in India , have its own Constitution under Article 370.
Important Committees of Constituent Assembly

Name of the Committee
Steering Committee
Rajendra Prashad
Committee on the Rules of Procedure
Rajendra Prashad
Finance and Staff Committee
Rajendra Prashad
Ad Hoc Committee on National Flag
Rajendra Prashad
Union Power Committee
Jawahar Lal Nehru
Union Constitution Committee
Jawahar Lal Nehru
State Committee
Jawahar Lal Nehru
Drafting Committee
Dr. B. R Ambedkar
Credential Committee
Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar
Order of Business Committee
K. M Munshi
Committee on Functions of the
 House Committee
B. Pattabhi Sitarammayya

Sources of Indian Constitution

President as the Nominal Head (like the Queen)
Cabinet Ministers
Post of Prime Minister
Bi-Cameral Parliament
Government Based on Parliament
More Powerful Lower House
Ministers responsible to the Lower House
Speaker in Lok Sabha
Single Citizenship
Fundamental Duties
USSR (Now Russia)
Five Years Plan
USSR (Now Russia)
Written Constitution
President would be the Executive head of the State and the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces
Vice President  would be the Ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha
Supreme Court
Fundamental Rights
Provision of the States
Independence of Judiciary and Judicial Review
Removal of the Judges of Supreme Court and High Court
Concurrent List
Language of Preamble
Provision regarding trade, commerce and intercourse
Law on which the Supreme Court works
Suspension of the Fundamental Rights during emergency
Weimar Constitution of Germany

Constitutional Amendments
South Africa
Federal Government with a Strong Center
Power Distribution between Center and States, Residuary Power of Center
Method of Election of the President
Concept of Directive Principles of State Policy
Nomination of members in Rajya Sabha by the President

The Preamble
  • It is the introduction of the India Constitution.
  • Though it is not an integral part of the Constitution, the interpretation of Indian Constitution is based on it.
  • The Supreme Court declared that it is an integral part of the Constitution in the Kesavananda Bharati Vs. Keral State case in 1971.
  • In the S. R Bommai Case of 1993, Justice Ramaswamy also confirmed that the Preamble is an integral part of Constitution.
  • The Preamble originally is the “Objective Resolution” which was proposed by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and passed by the Constituent Assembly.
  • The words “Secular”, “Socialist”, “Unity” and “Integrity” were added in 1976 by the 42nd Amendment Act.

Schedules in the Constitution of India

1st Schedule
States and Union Territories
2nd Schedule
Salary of the President, Chief Justice, Judge of Supreme Court, Governor, Comptroller and Auditor General
3rd Schedule
Forms related to oath and affirmations
4th Schedule
Allocation of seats for each Indian State in the Rajya Sabha
5th Schedule
Administration and Control of Scheduled Caste and Tribes
6th Schedule
Administration of the Tribal Areas of Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura,  and Arunachal Pradesh
7th Schedule
Allocation of functions and power between the Center and States. It contains three lists i.e. Union List, States List and Concurrent List. N.B - 1
8th Schedule
List of 22 Constitution recognized languages of India. i.e. Assamese, Bengali, Gujrati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telegu, Santhali, Urdu, Bodo, Maithili, Dogri. N.B - 2
9th Schedule
Acts and orders related to the land tenure, Land Tax, Industries, Railways. It was added by the 1st Amendment Act in 1951. N.B - 3
10th Schedule
Disqualification of grounds of defection which was added by the 52nd Amendment Act in 1985.
11th  Schedule
Panchayati Raj. It was added by the 73rd Amendment Act in 1992.
12th Schedule
Municipal Corporation. It was added by the 74th Amendment Act in 1992.

  • N.B – 1 Union List is for Central Government and it has 97 subjects. State List ensures the powers of State Government and it has 66 subjects. Concurrent List is for Center and states. It has 47 subjects.
  • N.B – 2 Sindhi was added in 1951 by the 1st Amendment Act, Nepali and Konkani and Manipuri were added by the 71st Amendment Act in 1992 and Santhali, Maithili, Dogri, boro were added in 2003 by the 92nd Amendment Act.
  • N.B – 3Right of the Property is not a Fundamental Right at Present.
Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights
Right to Equality
Art. 14
Equality before law and equal protection of the law
Right to Equality
Art. 15
Discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, birth place are prohibited.
Right to Equality
Art. 16
Equal opportunity in public employment
Right to Equality
Art. 17
End of untouchability
Right to Equality
Art. 18
Abolition of titles (except Military and Academic Distinctions)
Right to Freedom
Art. 19
It provides 6 Fundamental Rights to the citizen of India. i.e. Freedom of Speech and Expression, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom to create associations, Freedom of Movement, Freedom of residence and Settlement and Freedom of Profession, Occupation. Trade or Business.
Right to Freedom
Art. 20
Protection from the conviction for offences.
Right to Freedom
Art. 21
Protection of life and personal Liberty.
Right to Freedom
Art. 22
Protection against arrest and detention in specific cases
Right Against Exploitation
Art. 23
Human Trafficing is prohibited
Right Against Exploitation
Art. 24
Child below the age 14 cannot be employed
Right to Freedom of Religion
Art. 25
Freedom of Conscience and free profession, propagation and practice of religion
Right to Freedom of Religion
Art. 26
Freedom to perform religious affairs
Right to Freedom of Religion
Art. 27
Prohibition of taxes on religious grounds
Right to Freedom of Religion
Art. 28
Freedom as to attend various religious ceremonies in educational institutions
Right to Cultural and Educational Rights
Art. 29
Protection of the  interest of the minorities
Right to Cultural and Educational Rights
Art. 30
Right of the minority communities to establish and administer the educational institutions
Right to Cultural and Educational Rights
Art. 31
It was omitted by the 44th Amendment Act.
Right to the Constitutional Remedies
Art. 32
Right to move the Supreme Court in case of violation.

Special Fundamental Rights added later 

Right to Education –
  • It was added by the 86th Amendment Act, 2002 in Art. 21A.
  • It ensures free and compulsory education of all the children of India of age group 6 – 14 years.
  • It came into effect since 2010.
Right to Information – 
  • It was passed in 15th June, 2005.
  • It repeated the Freedom of Information Act. 2002.
  • It came into force on 12th October, 2005.
  • The act is extended in whole India except Jammu and Kashmir.
New States were created after 1950

Andhra Pradesh
It was created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act, 1953 and carved out some areas from Chennai.
It was created by the State Reorganization Act, 1956. It comprised of Travancor and Cochin Areas.
Gujrat and Maharashtra
The Mumbai was divided into two states. i.e. Gujrat and Maharashtra by Mumbai (Reorganization Act. 1960)
It was created from Princely State of Mysuru through the State Reorganization Act 1956. The state was renamed Karnataka in 1973.
It was taken from the state of Punjab by Punjab (Reorganization) Act, 1966.
It was taken from the State of Assam by State of Nagaland Act. 1962.
It was carved out as the sub state within Assam by 23rd Amendment Act, 1969. It became a full-fledged state by North-Eastern Areas (Reorganization) Act.
Himachal Pradesh
It became a state from a Union Territory by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970.
The state was converted from the status of Union Territories by North Eastern Areas (Reorganization) Act in 1971.
It became a full state by State of Mizoram Act, 1986.
Goa was separated the Union Territories of Goa, Daman and Diu and became a state in 1987.
It was an Associate State by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1974. In 1975, it became a state by the 36th Amendment Act of 1975.
Arunachal Pradesh
It became a state in 1986.
The state was converted from the status of Union Territories by North Eastern Areas (Reorganization) Act in 1971.
It was created by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 from Bihar on 15thNovember.
It was created by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 from Madhya Pradesh on 1st November.
It was created by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 from Uttar Pradesh on 9th November.

Forms of the Writs
The Supreme Court can issue writs of various forms under the Article 32 for enforcing the Fundamental Rights.
  • Habeas Corpus – It means “to have the body”. According to that, a person imprisoned or detained by law can inquire about the reason of his/ her punishment.
  • Mandamus – It means “command”. It is issued by court commanding the public or person authority to do something as the nature of Public Duty.
  • Quo Warranto – It is an order that is issued by a court to prevent a person to hold an office he/ she is not entitles and oust from that office.
  • Certioari – It orders the removal of a suit from a lower court to higher one for quick justice.
  • Prohibition – It is issued by a higher court to stop the proceeding in lower courts on the basis of isolation or over-stepping of rules of Natural Justice.

Major Articles of the Constitution

Art. 1-4
Union  and its Territory
Art. 5 - 11
Art. 12 - 35
Fundamental Rights
Art. 36 - 51
Directive Principles of the State Policy
Art. 51A
IV - A
Fundamental  Duties (modified and added by 42nd Amendment, 1976)
Art. 52 -151
Art. 152 - 231
Art. 239 - 242
Union Territories
Art. 243 – 243 (0)
Art. 243 (P) – 243 (ZG)
IX (A)
Art. 243 (ZH) – 243 (ZT)
IX (B)
Co-operative Societies
Art. 244 – 244(A)
Scheduled cast and Tribes
Art. 245 - 263
Center and States Relation
Art. 264 – 300
Finance, Property, suits and Contracts
Art. 301 - 307
Trade, Commerce, intercourse within India
Art. 309 - 323
Services under the states and center
Art. 323 (A) – 323 (B)
Art. 324 - 329
Art. 330 - 342
Special Provisions for certain classes
Art. 343 - 351
Official languages
Art. 352 - 360
Emergency Provisions
Art. 361 - 367
Art. 368
Constitutional Amendments
Art. 369 - 392
Transitional, Temporary and special status of states
Art. 393 - 395
Short title, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeats, commencements

 Fundamental Duties of Citizen of India

Abide By the Constitution and respect the National Anthem and Flag
Cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired the National Freedom Struggle
Protect the sovereignty, integrity and unity of India
Defend the country
Promote the spirit of common brotherhood among Indian Citizen
Preserve the rich heritage of composite culture
Protect and improve national environment
Develop scientific temper and inquiry spirit
Safeguard the public property
Strive towards excellence in every sphere of individual and collective activity
Parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child of age group 6 -14 years (86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002)

Union and its Territories –
  • India is a Union of States.
  • The Territory of India includes all of the states and Union Territory.
Directive Principles of the State Policy –
  • These are mentioned under the Part IV in the Articles 36 – 51 of the Constitution.
  • These policies are the “novel features” of the Indian Constitution.
  • These principles promote the ideology of economic and social Democracy and thus establish a welfare state in India.
Citizenship of India –
  • The citizens of India are divided into four types by the Citizenship Act, 1955.
  • Every person born on or after 26th January, 1950 in India, is a citizen of India by birth.
  • Citizenship by descent
  • Citizenship by Registration
  • Citizenship by incorporation of territory
Loss of the Citizenship – 
  • Termination of citizenship in case a citizen acquires the citizenship of another country.
  • Renunciation of Citizenship
  • Deprivation of Citizenship by the Government of India.
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