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Geography Notes for SSC, Railway Exams

Geography Notes for SSC, Railway Exams
Geography Notes for SSC, Railway Exams

A Good News for all of you. From Today onwards we will provide you the series of SSC Exams Notes from where lots of questions were frequently asked. Today in this Article we will Provide you the details facts and Figures on The Universe and its Solar System. This is the First Part of Geography Notes. Based on Subjects we will cover each and every Topics day by day. Those who are following us can note down these important points. Each and every points which we mentioned is important for SSC CHSL, CGL 2018 or Upcoming Railway Exams. 
The Universe
  • According to the Scientists, the outward expansion of the world is the result of a powerful, violent explosion (Big Bang) which occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. 
  • The origin of the universe is explained by Big Bang Theory. The theory was formulated and proposed by Georges Lemaitre.
  • There are about 100 Billion galaxies (10^11) galaxies in the universe.
  • The Milky Way Galaxy is the home of the solar system including earth. Its shape is spiral.
  • The Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy is the latest known galaxy (discovered in 2003).
The Solar System

Name of planets
Distance from Sun
Time Taken for One Revolution around Sun
Time Taken for One Revolution on its axis
No. of Satellites
58 * 10^6 Km
88 days
58.6 days
108 * 10^6 Km
224.7 days
243 Days
150 * 10^6 Km
365.26 days
23.9 hours
228 * 10^6 Km
687 days
24.6 hours
778 * 10^6 Km
11.9 years
9.9 hours
1427 * 10^6 Km
29.5 years
10 hours
2870 * 10^6 Km
84 years
16.2 hours
4504 * 10^6 Km
164.8 years
18.5 hours

Important Facts about Solar System

Largest Planet
Smallest Planet
Brightest Planet
Red Planet
Blue Planet
Nearest planet to Sun
Farthest planet to Sun
Morning Star
Planet with Red Spot
Evening Star
Hottest Planet
Nearest Planet to Earth
Coldest Planet
Slowest Rotation in Solar System
Fastest Rotation in Solar System
Slowest revolution in Solar System
Sirius (Dog Star)
Brightest Planet outside solar system
Fastest Rotation in Solar System
Smallest Satellite
Largest Satellite
Proxima Centuari
Closest Star  of Solar System

Important Facts about Sun

Total Life 
10 Billion Years
4.6 Billion Years
Time taken by the Sunlight to reach earth
8 min and 16.6 sec
Chemical composition
Hydrogen (71%), Helium (26.5 %) and other gases (2.5%)
Speed of light (in vacuum)
300000 Km
Rotation Speed
33 days (with respect to  Poles) 25.63 days (with respect to equator)
1391980 Km
Temperature of the core
15000000 Degree K
Average Distance from earth
149598900 Km

Important Facts about Moon

3476 Km
The mass of Earth * 0.0123
Average Distance from Earth
384365 Km
Surface Temperature
-233 to 123 Degree Celsius
Time taken by the moon light to reach the earth
1.3 Secs
Percentage of surface visible from earth
Ratio of Diameter of moon to that of earth
1: 3.7
Revolution Speed
27days 7 hrs 43 min and 11.47 Sec
Rotation Speed
27days 7 hrs 43 min and 11.47 Sec

Important Facts about Earth

4550 Million Years
5.976 * 10 ^ 24 Kg
1.083 * 10^24 L
Mean Density
5.518 Kg/L
Total Surface Area
510 Million Square Km
Total Land Area
29.2% of the total surface area
Total water area
70.8% of the total surface area
Average Density
5.52 (Corresponding to the density of water)
Polar Diameter
12714 Km
Equatorial Diameter
12756 Km
Equatorial Radius
6377 Km
Polar Radius
6371 Km (IUGG)
Equatorial Circumference
40076 Km
Polar Circumference
40024 Km
Mean Surface Temperature
14 Degree Celsius
Escape Velocity
11.2 Km/ Sec
Highest Land Point
Mount Everest (8848 m)
Lowest Land Point
Dead Sea (396 m)
Greatest Ocean Depth
Mariana Trench (11033 m)
Rotation Speed
23Hrs 56 Min and 40.91 Sec
Revolution Speed
365 days 5hrs and 45.51 Sec
Aphelion (Maximum Distance from Sun)
About 152 Million Km
Perihelion (Minimum Distance from Sun)
About 147 Million Km
Dates on which the day and night are equal
23rd September (Autumnal Equinox) and 21st March (Vernal Equinox)
Dates of longest days and shortest nights
22nd December (Winter Solstice) and 21st June (Summer Solstice)
Composition of Earth
Consists of 100 elements, Major 8 elements – Oxygen (46.5%), Silicon (27.72%), Aluminium (8.13%), Iron (5.01%), Calcium (3.63%), Sodium (2.85%), Potassium (2.62%) and Magnesium (2.09%)

Structure of Earth
The Crust –
  • The outermost solid cover (shell) of the earth is known as the Earth’s Crust.
  • The crust varies greatly in thickness and its composition is as small as 5 Km. In some mountain ranges, it extends up to 70 Km in depth.
  • The crust of earth is made of 2 layers i.e. Sial and Sigma.
Mantle –
  • It lies below the crust.
  • The thickness of mantle is about 2900 Km.
  • The line of separation between the mantle and crust is called as Mohoviricic Discontinuity.
Core –
  • The core of earth lies beyond a depth of 2900 Km.
  • The outer core is in molten form and is 2100 Km thick while the inner core is in plastic form and is 1370 Km thick.
  • It is made up of iron and nickel and is responsible for Earth’s magnetism.
  • The temperature in the Earth’s core lies from 2200 Degree Celsius to 2750 Degree Celsius.
  • The Line of separation between the mantle and the core is known as Gutenberg-Wiechert Discontinuity.
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