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SSC & Railway History Notes: Vedic Culture

SSC & Railway History Notes: Vedic Culture
The Vedic Culture :Complete Study Notes

Some Special Key Points for Competitive exams:
  • The Vedic Literature was composed during 1500 B.C – 1000 B.C.
  • The word Aryan denotes – a race.
  • Gayatri Mantra is contained in Mandala III of Rig-Veda Composed by Visvamitra.
  • 200 Rig-Vedic Hymns dedicated to Agni.
  • 10th mandala in Rig-Veda contains the famous Purushasukta which explain the 4 varnas – Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.
  • The 1st permanent home of the Aryans in India was Punjab.
  • The Upanishad was compiled around 600 BC.
  • The Gayatri Mantra contained in the Rig-Veda is dedicated to Savitri.
  • “The world God and God is my soul” is the philosophy contained in the Upanishads.
  • “War begins in the minds of men” is stated in Atharvaveda.
  • Ratnakara” was denoted by the Indian Ocean.
  • The earliest Aryan tax – Bali.
  • The ancient term for forced labour – Vishti.
  • The basic unit of tribal kingdom in Vedic age – Jana.
  • Upanishads are books of Yoga.
  • Nivi, Paridhan and Adhivasa” were the different types of garments of the Aryans.
  • Panini – Wrote Sanskrit Grammar.
  • The code of conduct of the Vedic Society was laid out in the text – Smritis.

Classification of Veda:

  • Rig-Veda – Hymns and Prayers. Aitareya Brahmana.
  • Sama –Veda – Musical Hymns. Jaminiya Brahmana.
  • Yajur – Veda – Hymns and rituals. Taittiriya Brahmana.
  • Atharva – Veda – Charms and spells. Gopatha Brahmana.

The most important divinity in Vedic Age:

  • Mitra – Sun’s beneficent energy.
  • Parjanya – god of cloud and rain.
  • Maruts – storm gods.
  • Varuna – sky and water.

Vedic literature and their theme:

Collection of hymns, prayers, sacrificial formulae etc.
Explain the origin and meaning of the various hymns.
Books of instruction to be given in the forest or writings meant for wood-dwelling hermits.
Secret or esoteric doctrines.

The following statement related to Rig-Veda:

  1. The Rig-Veda people worshipped nature.
  2. The Rig-Veda family comprised parents another kith and kin apart from husband and wife.
  3. The Rig-Veda women were highly respected and that most of the religious ceremonies were considered incomplete unless wives joined their husbands.
  4. The main cause of the tribal wars among the early Aryan settlers, the most famous of which is mentioned in Rig-Veda as “Battle of Ten Kings”, which was fought on the banks of Purushni (Ravi).
  5. The metal was mentioned in Rig-Veda is Lead. 
  6. The word “Gotra” occurs for the 1st time in Rig Veda.
  7. The literal meaning of the word Aryan is Superior.
  8. Max Muller was the 1st European to designate Aran as a race.
  9. The river name Periyar maintained in Rig Veda.
School of Thought and related Person:

  • Mimansa – Jamini.
  • Nyaya Darshan – Aksapada Gautama.
  • Sankhya – Isvarakrishna.
  • Vaishesik – Uluka Kanadra.
Ancient Name of the River Modern Name of the River
Vitasta Jhelum
Askini Chenab
Purushni Ravi
Vipasa Beas

The life of man in Aryan Society order of age:

  • Brahmacharya – Grihastha – Vanaprastha – Sanyasa.
  • The Aryan at first settled in Punjab.
  • Blacksmith was not practised by the Aryans.
  • The Aryans came to central Asia.

Vedic Text and their contents:

Manu Smriti Code of law
Sutras Customs and rituals
Upvedas Secular subjects
Brahamanas Explanatory notes on Vedic mantras

Important Points:

  • Total no. of Vedas – 4.
  • Total no. Of Upanishads – 108.
  • Total no. of Vedangas – 6.
  • Total no. of Darshans – 6.
  • Total no. of Upaveda – 4.
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