The Vedic Culture :Complete Study Notes
Some Special Key Points for Competitive exams:
- The Vedic Literature was composed during 1500 B.C – 1000 B.C.
- The word Aryan denotes – a race.
- Gayatri Mantra is contained in Mandala III of Rig-Veda Composed by Visvamitra.
- 200 Rig-Vedic Hymns dedicated to Agni.
- 10th mandala in Rig-Veda contains the famous Purushasukta which explain the 4 varnas – Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.
- The 1st permanent home of the Aryans in India was Punjab.
- The Upanishad was compiled around 600 BC.
- The Gayatri Mantra contained in the Rig-Veda is dedicated to Savitri.
- “The world God and God is my soul” is the philosophy contained in the Upanishads.
- “War begins in the minds of men” is stated in Atharvaveda.
- “Ratnakara” was denoted by the Indian Ocean.
- The earliest Aryan tax – Bali.
- The ancient term for forced labour – Vishti.
- The basic unit of tribal kingdom in Vedic age – Jana.
- Upanishads are books of Yoga.
- “Nivi, Paridhan and Adhivasa” were the different types of garments of the Aryans.
- Panini – Wrote Sanskrit Grammar.
- The code of conduct of the Vedic Society was laid out in the text – Smritis.
Classification of Veda:
- Rig-Veda – Hymns and Prayers. Aitareya Brahmana.
- Sama –Veda – Musical Hymns. Jaminiya Brahmana.
- Yajur – Veda – Hymns and rituals. Taittiriya Brahmana.
- Atharva – Veda – Charms and spells. Gopatha Brahmana.
The most important divinity in Vedic Age:
- Mitra – Sun’s beneficent energy.
- Parjanya – god of cloud and rain.
- Maruts – storm gods.
- Varuna – sky and water.
Vedic literature and their theme:
Collection of hymns, prayers, sacrificial formulae etc.
Explain the origin and meaning of the various hymns.
Books of instruction to be given in the forest or writings meant for wood-dwelling hermits.
Secret or esoteric doctrines.
The following statement related to Rig-Veda:
- The Rig-Veda people worshipped nature.
- The Rig-Veda family comprised parents another kith and kin apart from husband and wife.
- The Rig-Veda women were highly respected and that most of the religious ceremonies were considered incomplete unless wives joined their husbands.
- The main cause of the tribal wars among the early Aryan settlers, the most famous of which is mentioned in Rig-Veda as “Battle of Ten Kings”, which was fought on the banks of Purushni (Ravi).
- The metal was mentioned in Rig-Veda is Lead.
- The word “Gotra” occurs for the 1st time in Rig Veda.
- The literal meaning of the word Aryan is Superior.
- Max Muller was the 1st European to designate Aran as a race.
- The river name Periyar maintained in Rig Veda.
- Mimansa – Jamini.
- Nyaya Darshan – Aksapada Gautama.
- Sankhya – Isvarakrishna.
- Vaishesik – Uluka Kanadra.
|Ancient Name of the River||Modern Name of the River|
The life of man in Aryan Society order of age:
- Brahmacharya – Grihastha – Vanaprastha – Sanyasa.
- The Aryan at first settled in Punjab.
- Blacksmith was not practised by the Aryans.
- The Aryans came to central Asia.
Vedic Text and their contents:
|Manu Smriti||Code of law|
|Sutras||Customs and rituals|
|Brahamanas||Explanatory notes on Vedic mantras|
- Total no. of Vedas – 4.
- Total no. Of Upanishads – 108.
- Total no. of Vedangas – 6.
- Total no. of Darshans – 6.
- Total no. of Upaveda – 4.