Governor General and Viceroys : An Overviews [for SSC Exams]
Lord Hardings-I (1844-48):
- 1st battle of Anglo-Sikh war (1845-46).
- Introduced Lahore Treaty in 1846.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-56):
- 2nd battle of Anglo-Sikh war (1848-49).
- Introduce “Uder Despatch” which is called “Magna Kata” in Indian educational System.
- Start Civil Service Recruitment through Competitive exam.
- Pass Chatter Act in 1853.
- 1st engineering College (Thomson College for Engineering” established at Rurkee.
- Established 1st Indian Railway in 1853 from Bombay to Thane.
- Simla Become summer time Capital.
- Introduced PWD.
- 1st Telegraph line from Kolkata to Agra.
- Introduced 1st postal system in 1854.
Lord Canning (1856-58):
- He was the Last Governor General and first Viceroys.
- In 1856 passed Widow Remarriage act.
- In 1857 1st war for Independence.
- Established Kolkata, Madraj, Bombay University in 1857.
- End the rule of East India Company.
- Passed Indian Council act in 1861.
- Indian Penal Code of Criminal was passed in 1859.
Lord Elgin I (1862-63):
- End of Wahhabi Movement.
Sir John Lawrence (1864-69):
- Bhutan War in (1864-65).
- Established “Femin Commission”.
- In 1865 High Court Established in Kokata, Bombay and Madraj.
- Telegraph Communication set up between Europe and India.
- Tenancy Act in Punjab and Ajodhya in 1868.
Lord Mayo (1869-72):
- Established “Statistical Survey of India” in 1872.
- 1st Senses Held in 1871.
- Only viceroy who murdered in office by a convict in 1872 in Andaman by Sher Ali.
Lord Northbrook (1872-76):
- Introduced Charity show control act in 1876.
- End Income tax.
- Inhibit Kuka movement of Punjab.
Lord Lytton (1876-80):
- In 1878 introduced “Femin Commission” by Richard Stachi.
- Infamous Governor – General in History of India.
- 2nd Anglo-Afghan battle war held.
- “Vernacular Press Act” (1878).
- Maximum age lowered from 21 to 19 in civil service.
Lord Ripon (1880-84):
- Established Punjab University in 1882.
- 1st Factory act for favour of child labour in 1881.
- Ilbert Bill Introduced in 1883.
- Lower age limit increase 18 to 21 in Civil Service Examinations.
- Called “Father of Local Self Government”.
- Land Revenue Policy.
- Low tax rate on salt.
- Very Famous Governor-General in India.
Lord Dufferin (1884-88):
- Established Indian National Congress in 1885.
- 3rd Anglo- Burmese war in 1885.Burma becomes a new area in India.
- Achison Committee set up at his Time.
Lord Landsdowne (1888-94):
- Passed “Age of Consent Act” in 1891.
- 2nd Factory act passed in 1891.
- Passed Indian Council act in 1892.
- Send “Durand Mission” to Kabul to define the line in between India and Afghanistan in 1893.
Lord Elgin II (1894-1899):
- Appointed Lyall Commission in 1897.
- British Officials stuff Rand and Amherst was killed by Chapekar Brothers in 1897.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905):
- Introduced University Commission (Ralley commission).
- Passed “Calcutta Corporation Act” in 1899.
- In 1904 Indian University Act passed.
- Set up Police Commission by Andrew Frazer.
- Announced partition of Bengal in 1905 on 16 Oct.
- “Young Husband Commission” send to Tibet in 1904.
- Passed “Ancient Monuments Protection Act” in 1904.
Lord Minto II (1905-10):
- Lord Morley was The Secretary of India.
- Morley-Minto Reforms act passed in 1909.
- Congress split into two parts in Surat session in 1907.
- Set up Muslim League 1906.
- Swadeshi movement in 1905-1908.
Lord Hardings II (1910-16):
- Protest Partition of Bengal in 1911.
- Established “Forest Research Institute and college” in Dehradun.
- Set up “Islington Commission” for Civil Service in 1912.
- “Hindu Mahashabha” established by Madan Mohan Malabya in 1915.
Lord Chelmsford (1916-21):
- Kesab Karve set up women’s University at Pune in 1916.
- Launch “Calcutta University Commission act” by Michel Sadller in 1917.
- “Home Rule Movement" by Tilak and Annie Besant in1916.
- Sathyagraho Movement Start in 1917 at Champaran.
- “Jalianwala Bagh Massacre" was held by Hunter Commission in 1919.
- Non-Cooperation Movement Started in 1920-1922.
- In 1920-1922 held Khilafat Movement.
Lord Readings (1921-26):
- On 26 August, 1925 V.J.Patil was the 1st Chairmen of Legislative Assembly.
- “Kakori rail Dacoit” in 1925.
- Chauri Chaura Movement in 1922.
- Established RSS in 1925.
- Mopahla Incident in Kerala (1921).
- Press Act (1910) and Raowlat Act (1919) were cancelled.
Lord Irwin (1926-31):
- Simon Commission set up in 1927.
- Demand “Poorna Swaraj” in Lahore Session of Congress (1929).
- Dandi March in 1930.
- 1st round table Conference in 1930 and pact in between Gandhi-Irwin in 1931.
Lord Wllington (1931-36):
- 2nd Round table conference in 1931.
- Launched all India Kishan Sabha in 1965.
- In 1935 passed “Government of India Act”.
- 3rd round table conference held in 1932 but congress did not participate.
Lord Linlithgow (1931-43):
- “Forward Block” Established by S.C.Bose in 1939.
- Cripps Mission (1942).
- Quit India Movement (1942).
- 1st Election held in 1939.
- Published “Rajagopalachari principle”.
Lord Wavell (1943-1947):
- End of 2nd world war 1942.
- “Cabinet mission” set up by Lord Pethik Lorence in 1946 on 15 March.
- “Direct Action” by Mahamud Ali Jimha in 1946.
- C.R.Formula in 1944.
Lord Mountbatten (1947 -1948):
- He was the last Governor of Dependent India and First Governor of Independent India.
- On 3 Jun, 1947 as per Mountbatten Plan announced independent day 15 August and partition of Country.
C. Rajagopalachari (1948-1950):
- The last and the only Indian Governor General.