What's New?

SPEEDY Railway Book (English)

Indian Polity and List of Constitutional Amendments

Indian Polity and Constitutional Amendments
Indian Polity and Constitutional Amendments

Today we are Sharing the Complete Notes on Indian Constitutional Amendments, The Union Executive, The President, Prime Minister, Vice President and its details explanation and facts. Those who are preparing for various competitive Exams like SSC CHSL, SSC CGL 2018 and Upcoming Railway NTPC Exams can go through this complete notes. Here we listed all important points from which basic questions were frequently asked in SSC & Railway Exams. 

List of Constitutional Amendments

9th Schedule was added by the Amendment to the Constitution.
It helps to reorganize the states on linguistic basis.
It extended the special provisions for the reservation of SCs, STs and Anglo Indians in the Lok Sabha and Bidhan Sabha from 1960 to 1970.
It transferred some territories to the Pakistan following the 1958 Indo-Pak Agreement.
It gave the UT status to Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
It gave the UT status to Goa, Daman and Diu.
Article 371(A) was added to make the special provision for the administration of Nagaland.
The former French Territories Mahe, Yanam, Puducherry and Karaikal were added in the 1st Schedule as the UT of Puducherry.
It reorganized Punjab into Punjab, Union Territory Chandigarh and Haryana.
It added Sindhi as the 15th Regional Language.
22nd  and 23rd
It created Sub-state of Meghalaya from Assam and extended the reservation of SCs, STs and Anglo Indians in the Lok Sabha and Bidhan Sabha till 1980.
It abolished the titles and special advantages of the former rulers of the Princely States.
It established Manipur and Tripura as State and Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram as the Union Territories.
It increased the strength of Lok Sabha from 525 to 545.
It converted Sikkim to a state.
It gave the President the power of declaring the National Emergency.
The election of President, Prime Minister, Speaker.
It ensured the supremacy of Parliament and preferred the Directive Principles over Fundamental Rights. It also added the words Secular, socialist, Integrity, Unity in the Preamble.

The Right to Property was eliminated from the Part III. Armed Rebellion in Article 352 was termed as one of the reasons for declaration of the Emergency.
1988 (Executed from 1989)
Article 326 was amended to reduce the age of voting from 21 to 18.
Konkani, Nepali and Manipuri were added in the VIII schedule.
Panchayati Raj Bill, constitution of Panchayat, Direct electionbs in Panchayats, reservation of SC and ST and fixation of 5 years tenure for Panchayats were made under it.
It included the Right to Education in the age group 6-14 years as the Fundamental Right.
2003 (Executed from 2004)
Maithili, Bodo, Santhali and Dongri were included into VIII Schedule.
2005 (Executed from 2006)
It ensured the reservation of seats for educationally and socially Backward Classes apart from the SC and ST in private institutions (Excluding the institutes run by the Minorities).
It ensured the reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for SCs and STs from 60 to 70 years. (till 25th January 2020)
“or Co-operative socities” was added after “or Union”. The aim of the Amendment is to encourage various economic activities for upgrading Rural India.
It ensured the supremacy of Parliament and preferred the Directive Principles over Fundamental Rights. It also added the words Secular, socialist, Integrity, Unity in the Preamble.

The President is the head of the Union Executive.
Election of President -
  • The President of India is elected indirectly by one single transferable vote through an “Electoral Collage”.
  • The elected members of both of the Houses of Parliament, elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States, elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.
  • In case of President’s Election, the vote value of a MLA equals to (Total Population of the State/ Total number of elected members of the state) / 1000.
  • In the President’s Election, the vote value of an MP equals to the (The sum of vote value of the elected members of all legislative Assemblies/ the sum of elected members of both houses of the Parliament).
  • The election of President is indirect in nature on the basis of two grounds i.e. direct election would be costly and real powers is vested in the Ministry.
  • The President of India must be an Indian, have completed minimum age 35 years, be qualified for the election as the member of House of People and must not hold any office under Government of India or the Government of any state.
  • There is no upper limit on the number of times one can become President under Article 57.
Terms, Impeachments and Emoluments -
  • The President’s term of office of five years from the date he enters his office.
  • President can submit the resignation in writing to the Vice President of India.
  • The President can be impeached in case of violation of the constitution as per Art. 61(1). It is a quasi-judicial procedure in the Parliament.
  • If any member of any of the Houses of Parliament of any state is elected as the President, he/ she will be deemed to have vacated his/ her seat in that House.
  • Vacancy in the President’s office can be caused by his death, resignation, removal by impeachment.
  • An election to the office of the President must be completed before the expiration of them.
  • If a vacancy is created, that must be held within six months from the date of occurrence of the vacancy. In case of mid-term vacancy, the Vice President can act as the President until the new President is selected.
  • The President can give resignation to Vice-President before the completion of full term.
  • The Present salary of President is Rs. 150000 per month including all allowances and emoluments.
Powers of President –
  • The President is the formal head of Administration. He has the power to appoint or remove the Prime Minister of India, other ministers, Attorney-General of India, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, judges of Supreme Court and high courts and Governors of the state.
  • The supreme command of Armed Forces is vested on the President but the Parliament can regulate the power.
  • The President of India enjoys the Diplomatic Power and can negotiate regarding various treaties and agreements with other countries.
  • President can summon, dissolve and address both of the houses of Parliament.
  • The President can nominate 12 members of Rajya Sabha who have special knowledge of literature, science, art and social service. He can also nominate 2 Anglo-Indian members of Lok Sabha if the community is not represented adequately in the House (Art. 331).
  • A Bill becomes an act after getting the consent from the President. He can give, withhold or return the Bill (not money Bill) for reconsideration.
  • The President enjoys the power of absolute, suspensive and pocket veto. Using the Vetos, the President can withhold his/her assent to the bill.
  • The President can pardon a convict from his/her sentence or conviction.
  • He has the power to deal with the situation of emergency.
  • The President owns Constitutional Authority to make various regulations related to different matters.
  • The President posses Special Power regarding Union Territories those are administered by the Union directly.
  • The President has the special power relating to the administration of the Schedule Caste.
List of President of India (Updated)

26.01.1950 – 13.05.1962
Dr. Rajendra Prasad
13.05.1962 – 13.05.1967
Dr. S Radhakrishnan
13.05.1967 – 03.05.1969
Dr. Zakir Hussain
03.05.1969 – 20.07.1069
V. V Giri
20.07.1069 – 24.08.1969 (First Chief Justice to be appointed as Acting President)
Justice M Hidayatullah
24.08.1969 - 24.08.1974
V. V Giri
24.08.1974 – 11.02.1977
F. Ali Ahmed
11.02.1977 – 25.07.1977
B. D Jatti
25.07.1977 - 25.07.1982
M. Sanjeev Reddy
25.07.1982 - 25.07.1987
Gaini Jail Singh
25.07.1987 – 25.07. 1992
R. Venkataraman
25.07. 1992 - 25.07. 1997
Dr. S. D Sharma
25.07. 1997 – 25.07.2002
K. R Narayanan
25.07.2002 - 25.07.2007
Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam
25.07.2007 – 25.07.2012
Mrs. Pratibha Patil
25.07.2012 – 20.07.2017
Pranab Mukherjee
20.07.2017 - Present
Ramnath Kovind

Vice President -
  • A person must be citizen of India, having minimum age of 35 years, must not hold an office of a President, Vice President or Governor of state and UTs and qualified for election as a member of Rajya Sabha, can be elected as a Vice President of India.
  • If a member of any of the houses is elected as Vice President, he / she must vacate his/ her seat.
Terms and Emoluments -
  • The Vice President of India is indirectly elected by a single transferable vote.
  • The State Legislatures do not take part in election of the Vice-President.
  • The members of both houses of Parliament can elect the Vice President.
  • Term of the office of the Vice President is 5 years from the date he/ she enters office.
  • The Vice President’s office may be terminated earlier by his/ her resignation or removal.
  • Formal impeachment is not required in case of the termination of Vice President.
  • The Vice President can be removed by the resolution of Rajya Sabha passed by majority and agreed by the Lok Sabha.
  • The Vice President acts as the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
  • Vice President can act as the President for a short term if there is a vacancy in the office of the President.
  • A sitting Vice Present can be reelected.
  • If both of the offices of President and Vice President remain vacant, the Chief Justice of India acts as the President.
  • Present salary of Vice President is Rs. 1,25000 per month.
List of Vice-President of India (Updated)
Vice- Presidents
Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan
1962- 1967
Dr. Zakir Hussain
1967 - 1969
V. V Giri
1969 - 1974
Bal Swaroop Pathak
1974- 1979
Dr. M Jatti
1979 - 1984
Justice Md. Hidayatullah
1984- 1987
S. Venkataraman
1987 - 1992
Dr. Sankar Dayal Sharma
1992 - 1997
K. R Narayanan
1997 - 2002
Krishnan Kant
2002 - 2007
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
2007 - 2017
Hamid Ansari
2017 - Present
M Venkiah Naidu

Prime Minister –
Eligibility –
  • A person must be citizen of India, having minimum age of 25 years (if a lok Sabha member) or 30 years (if a Rajya Sabha member), must be a member of either Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha.
  • If he/ she is not a member of Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha, he / she must become a member of either house within six months.
Power and Functions -
  • The Prime Minister of India is appointed by the President of India. 
  • Rest of the Ministers are appointed or dismissed by the President as per the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • He / she is the Real Executive Authority.
  • He / she is the ex-officio Chairman of the Planning Commission, National Development Council, Inter State Council and National Integration Council.
  • The President prorogues all the sessions of Parliament after consulting with the Prime Minister.
  • He/ She allocates portfolios of other ministers and can ask a minister to resign. 
  • He/ she can assist the President in appointment of high officials and can recommend the President to declare National/ Financial Emergency on various grounds.
  • Prime Minister must be the leader of the Political Party having the majority in the Lok Sabha. Any person, who can win the confidence of the majority of House, can be the Prime Minister. 
List of Prime Minister of India (Updated)
Prime Ministers
15.08.1947 – 27.05. 1964
Jawahar Lal Nehru
27.05. 1964 – 09.06. 1964
Gulzari Lal Nanda
27.05. 1964 – 11.01.1966
Lal Bahadur Shastri
11.01.1966 – 24.01.1966
Gulzari Lal Nanda
24.01.1966 – 24.03. 1977
Indira Gandhi
24.03. 1977 – 28.07.1979
Morarji Desai
28.07.1979 – 14.01.1980
Charan Singh
14.01.1980 – 31.10.1984
Indira Gandhi
31.10.1984 – 01.12.1989
Rajiv Gandhi
01.12.1989 – 10.11.1990
V. P Singh
10.11.1990 – 21.06.1991
Chandra Sekhar
21.06.1991 – 16.05.1996
P. V Narasimha Rao
16.05.1996 – 01.06.1996
Atal Bihari Bajpayee
01.06.1996 – 21.04.1997
H. D Deve Gowda
21.04.1997 – 19.03.1998
I K Gujral
19.03.1998 – 13.10.1999
Atal Bihari Bajpayee
13.10.1999 – 22.05.2004
Atal Bihari Bajpayee
22.05.2004 – 26.05.2014
Dr. Manmohan Singh
26.05.2014 - Present
Narendra Modi
Types of Other Ministers –
  • Cabinet Ministers – They are the Policy Makers. Only they can attend the cabinet meetings.
  • Ministers of State – They can hold either independent charge or be attached with a Cabinet Minister.
  • Deputy Ministers – They do not have any separate charge.
Read: Oneliner points on The President, V-President & The Prime Minister

Union Legislature of India
The Parliament consists of President, House of People (Lok Sabha) and Council of States (Rajya Sabha).
Lok Sabha –
  • The maximum strength of Lok Sabha is 550 (+ 2 nominated members). In which 530 is for states and 20 is Union Territories.
  • Present strength of Lok Sabha is 545.
  • The 84th Amendment of 2001 extended freeze on State Assembly seats and Lok Sabha till 2026.
  • The candidates of Lok Sabha must be a citizen of India, having minimum age of 25 years. They should not hold any office of profit. They must be insolvent and have registered as a voter in any of the Parliamentary Constituencies.
  • The Speaker conducts the oath of the MPs.
  • He / she can resign by writing to Speaker.
  • The Presiding Officer of Lok Sabha is the Speaker. In his absence the Deputy Speaker can hold the charge. The members can elect him/ her among themselves.
  • Even after the dissolution of the House, the Speaker continues in the office till a newly elected Lok Sabha meets.
  • The Speaker has to cut-off all his/ her political connection and act like a neutral member. He/ she can cast vote to remove a deadlock.
  • His/ her salary is charged from the consolidated Fund of India.
  • Speaker can send his/ her resignation to the Deputy Speaker.
  • If the majority of the members of Parliament want to remove the Speaker, they can do it by giving 14 days notice period. In this period the Speaker cannot preside over the meetings. The Speaker can continue the office till the successor takes the charge.
Rajya Sabha –
  • The maximum strength of Rajya Sabha is 250.
  • The President can nominate 12 persons having practical knowledge or special knowledge on the fields of science, art, social services, literature.
  • The Parliament has provided 233 seats for the states and UTs. The total membership of Rajya Sabha is 245.The states and UTs of Delhi and Puducherry are represented in Rajya Sabha.
  • The MPs of Rajya Sabha are elected for 6 years while 1/3rd of the members retire every two years.
  • Vice President is the Ex-Officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
  • The members of the Rajya Sabha is elected by a single transferable vote on the basis of proportional representation.
  • The candidates of Rajya Sabha must be a citizen of India, having minimum age of 25 years. They should not hold any office of profit. They must be a Parliamentary Elector in the state in which he/ she is seeking election.
  • There must not be any reservation of the seats for SCs and STs.
  • The Deputy Chairman is selected from the members.
  • Any Bill (Except the Money Bill including Budget) can originate in Rajya Sabha.
Join Your Competitor in FB Groups
Join Your Competitor in Telegram Groups
Study Materials and Important Notifications
Latest Govt. Schemes Monthly PDF Download
Newsletters Form

  • Comments
  • Google+
  • Disqus