Medieval History Notes: Mughal Empire
Important Key Features:
- Babar came to India originally from- Ferghana,Uzbekistan.
- The arrival of Babar into the Indian subcontinent led to the –Introducing of gunpowder in the subcontinent battle tactics.
- Babar was invited to India for invading by Alam Khan was-The father of Dilawar Khan to whom cruel treatment was meted out by Ibrahim Lodi.
- Sher Shah Suri had assumed the title of Hazrat-i-Ala.
- Ahmadnagar-was annexed to the Mughal empire during the reign of Shahjahan.
- Akbar’s land revenue system wes known as – Zabti system.
- The court poet of Akabar who refers to the discovery of America is-Abul Fazl.
- The head of the military department under the recognised central machinery of administration during Akbar’s reign was- Mir Bakshi.
- 1st Battle of Panipat (Babar v/s Ibrahim Lodhi) in 1526. Babar owned this war with help of Cannon and Heavy Guns.
- Battle of Khanwa in 1527, between Rana Sunga v/s Babar –Babar owned this war also.
- Battle of Chanderi in between Rajput ruler ‘Medini Rai v/s Babar in 1528-Babar own.
- Book: ‘Babarnama’ was an autobiography of Babar written in Turkish language, which converted in Persian Language by Abdur Rahim at the time of Akbar.
- Babar liked Alcohol most.
- In 1530, Babar died.
Humayun (1530-1540) (1555-1556):
- In 1539, Battle of Chausa in between Sher Shah Suri v/s Humayon – Humayun owned.
- In 1540, Battle of Karnai in between Sher Saha Suri v/s Humayun-Sher Shah Suri owned at that time and announced Delhi sultan.
- Sher Saha Suri was the founder of Suri Dynasty, he was the great Administrator. Introduced G.T. road, his tomb in Sararam in Bihar.
- In Battle of Surhind in 1555 Humayun owned and set up the empire of Mughal again.
- Humyun liked opium.
- “Humayun Tomb” was made by ‘Hamida Bano Begum’ at Delhi, which now become a heritage sight.
- Book: ‘Humayunama’ written by Humayun sister Gulbadan Banu Begam in Persian Language.
- Started at 13 yrs old.
- Battle: in 1556-II Battle of Panipat in between Biaram Khan (PM of Akbar) v/s Hemu (PM of Adel Saha)- Bairam Khan owned this war.
- Brought stability to empire through Policies: a). Military Policy, b).Economic Policy.
- Brought people of all faith together.
- Akbar wanted to establish friendship with the Rajputs because: a). Mughal likes with Central Asia having been completely snaped, so Akbar had to make friendly alliances in India, b). Friendship with the Rajputs was politically fruitful, c). he wanted to make peaceful Rajputana a stepping stone for his Gujarat and Deccan conquests.
- In 1569, new capital introduced by Akbar in Fatehpur Sikri, which become a World Heritage Sight.
- Established Buland Darwaza, Agra Fort.
- Tomb: Sikandrs near Agra.
- Book: “Akbarnama”, “Ain –I-Akbari” written by Abul Fazal in Persian Language.
- In 1605, Akbar died.
- A great lover of Art & Culture than a good administrator and trend of protest painting started.
- Book: “Tuzuk-I-Jahangir” was a autobiography of Jahangir in Persian Language which contain Natural Heritage, Flora, Fauna, Art etc.
- Wife: Nurjahan (old name-Mahrunisa whose title as “Padsha Begum”.
- In 1615, Thomas Roe & Willium Hawkins came to court of Jahangir.
- Tomb-in Lahore.
- In 1627, Jahangir Died.
Shahjahan (old name-Khurram)-(1627-1658):
- He was famous for “Golden Age of Architechere” –(Taj Mahal, Moti Mosjid).
- Shifted capital to Shajahanabad (old Delhi).
- Set up Red Fort, Jama Mosjid in Delhi.
- Tomb: Taj Mahal.
- Takes the title of “Alamgir”.
- Built Makbara of Rabiya Bibi/Rabiya Durani.
- Battle: 1). Battle of Ahom-most expand of Mughal Empire, 2). publically Executed 9th Sikh Guru Tej Bahadur.
- Mughal Empire start decline during the last phase of this period of over centralisation.