Evolution of Indian Constitution for SSC Exams
Constitution in every country is a law in which fundamental rules, regulation and duties are based, depend on many sources of different countries and acts Indian constitution established, the world largest written constitution has near to us. The history to written of our constitution depend on various acts are given below.
The Company Rule (1773-1858):
Regulating Act of 1773:
- Depend on this act British Government control and regulate the East India Company in India.
- Establishment Calcutta Supreme Court (1774) having one chief Justice and three Judges.
- More importance given to Bengal Presidency than Madraj and Bombay Presidency.
Pitt’s Act of 1784:
- Double Government established and control administration in India.
- “Board of Control” was established by 6 members.
Charter Act 1793:
- Board of Control Members salaries payment from Indian Revenue.
- Rules and regulation power given to the Courts.
- Members of board of control reduced 6 to 5.
- According to this act except tea Trade and External business in China other trade control by East India Company came to end.
- Tax collection power given to Local authorised Body.
- Christian missionaries were approbating expansion their religion in India.
- 1 lakh money expended in education purpose.
Charter Act 1833:
- Governor General of Bengal post converted to Governor General of IndiaMilitry and Civil power given to him. Lord William Bentinck was the 1st governor-general in India. “Indian Council” also introduced in this act.
- Commercial Body totally become an Administrative body.
- All administrative recruitment through civil service.
- 1st law member appointment (lord Meclle)
Charter Act 1853:
- All government post fill up through Civil Service examination.
- Separate governor appointed for Bengal.
- Six new legislative members for governor general council, four members appointed for local government for Bombay, Bengal, Madras, Agra.
The Crown Rule (1958-1947):
Government of India Act 1858:
- After First war of Independence i.e. Sepoy Mutiny in 1957 this act was introduced.
- Governor General post change to Viceroy of India. 1st Viceroy-Lord Canning.
- Established British Parliament instead the end of East India Company.
- Secretary of state for India appointed and full responsible to the British Parliament, 1st secretary of state Lord Stanley.
- Court of Director and Board of control fully end by this Act.
- This act known as “act for the good Government of India”.
- Indian Council Act 1861:
- Established Calcutta, Bombay, Madraj high court, and reschedule Indian rules and regulation.
- Ordinance issue power given to Viceroy.
- Portfolio System set up by Lard Canning.
Indian Council Act 1892:
- Increased non official members in the central and legislative India council, but maintained more official members than non-official.
- Given the power to discuss about the Budget to legislative council of India and addressing question to executive..
- Two legislative council 1. Central legislative council by Viceroy and Bengal chamber of Commerce. And 2. Provisional Legislative Council by Governor appointed local bodies for the District, Universities, Municipalities, and Zamindars etc.
- Election process was described in this act.
Indian Council Act 1909:
- It also called Morley-Minto reforms. (Lord Morley was the secretary of state of India and Lord Minto was the Viceroy then).
- Increased the members of Central and Provincial legislative council. Central legislative council increased from 16 to 60, and provincial legislative council increased uniformly.
- Satyandra Prasad Sinha was the 1st Indian to join Viceroy’s Executive council and also appointed as a law member.
- Muslim members elected by Muslim voters only. Lord Minto accepted this “separate Electorate”, he known as the Father f Communal Electorate”. Also representation separate members for Presidency
- Corporation, Universities, and Zamindars etc.
Indian Council Act 1919:
- This act also known as Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, (Montagu was the secretary of State for India and Lord Chelmsford was the Viceroy of India).
- Introduced double Rule and divided provincial subjects into two parts i.e. 1. Transferred Subject for legislative council was responsible to Governor and 2. Reserved subject for executive council was responsible to legislative council.
- The Upper House means ‘Council of State’ where 34 members are elected among 60 members.
- The lower named ‘Legislative Assembly’ and 104 members are elected 144.
- Simon Commission set up in 1927 to submit report in 1930.
- “White paper on Constitutional reforms” was prepared and submitted to British parliament for consideration.
- Communal Award in 1932 by British Prime Minister Ramsey MacDonald.
Government of Indian Act 1935:
- Dependent on this act Indian Constitution established.
- Three list of powers: 1. Federal list (for centre 59 items.) 2. Provincial List (54 items) 3.Concurrent list (for both with 36 items).
- Introduce “Provincial autonomy”
Indian Independence Act 1947:
- Mountbatten Plan was the forth partition plan which was accepted by muslin league and congress,
- British Government declare end of British rule on June 30, 1948. Muslim League demanded separation country.
- 1st Constituent Assembly held on December 9, 1946.
- 1n 1947 on 15 august and power transferred to new independent dominant of India and Pakistan.
- These are the historical background of Indian Constitution.